EXAMINATION OF MARINE ENGINEER OFFICER ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE (GENERAL)

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78EKG-1

Sr. No. 2

EXAMINATION OF MARINE ENGINEER OFFICER

ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE

(GENERAL)

CLASS- I

(Time allowed - 3 hours)

INDIA (2001)                                                            Morning Paper                              Total Marks  100

                             N.B. -        (1) Attempt  SIX questions ONLY.
                                               (2) All questions carry equal marks.
                                               (3) Neatness in handwriting and clarity in expression carries weightage

1.      A vessel in- your Company's fleet suffered, damage during a canal transit due to a electrical telegraph breakdown during manoeuvring. The Superintendent Engineer has instructed you to examine the vessel's telegraph. Write a report giving the results of your examination.

2.      With reference to fire and explosions in marine practice, describe generally and discuss the purpose of any three of the following: -
(a)    Pressure-vacuum valves and system piping on oil tankers.
(b)   Photo-electric smoke detecting units.
(c)    Sprinkler installations.
(d)   International shore connection.

3.      Explain why mild steel is used extensively in marine machinery enumerating the physical properties, which influence its choice. State the maximum allowable, working stress for different applications and, discuss the types of failure, which can occur.

4.      Seawater pumps operating at constant speed discharge into a ring main for cooling auxiliary machinery. Describe a method using pneumatic controls to keep the ring main pressure constant.

5.      Describe the oil separator equipment, which may be installed in a vessel to comply with the MARPOL 73/78 Convention. Discuss generally a Chief Engineer's duties regarding this Convention and the instructions, which should be given to the engine department staff.

6.      Discuss the tests which should be made regarding the operation of: -
(a)    low pressure alarms on refrigeration Compressor,
(b)   low and high level alarms on aux boiler,
(c)    relief valves on air compressor,
(d)   safety valves on boilers,
(e)    over-speed governors on auxiliary engines,
(f)    continuous recording salinity indicators on Fresh water generator,
(g)   CO2 smothering gas system discharge warning devices.

7.      Briefly describe three types of filter that might be used in connection with a lubricating-oil circulating system. State the use of each particular type of filter and where in the system you would expect to find them.

8.      Sketch and describe the oil fuel filling, relief, and overflow arrangements for a medium sized ship in which the oil is carried in both side bunkers and double bottom tanks.
Recommend a bunkering procedure for this arrangement.


9.      State the causes of -
(a)    a gradual increase,
(b)   a gradual decrease,
In freshwater consumption for machinery space purposes.
(c) discuss the relevant investigations and remedial measures.


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78EKG-1

Sr. No. 10

EXAMINATION OF MARINE ENGINEER OFFICER

ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE

(GENERAL)

CLASS- I

(Time allowed - 3 hours)

INDIA (2001)                                                            Morning Paper                              Total Marks  100

                             N.B. -        (1) Attempt  SIX questions ONLY.
                                               (2) All questions carry equal marks.
                                               (3) Neatness in handwriting and clarity in expression carries weightage

1.      Give two reasons for sludge formation in main lubricating oil systems. Explain how bearing metal is attacked with particular reference to incompatibility between the oil and metal. Explain the role of additives. Discuss the problems associated with the use of a multi-purpose lubricating oil.

2.      Explain the necessity of intercoolers on a multi-stage compressor. What attention is required to keep them safe and in good working order? Sketch and describe an intercooler suitable for a high pressure  compressor and state materials used.

3.      Discuss the merits and demerits of shell and pad shaft bearings. How is shafting alignment checked. What is the effect of tailshaft weardown on the adjacent shaft bearings.

4.      How is the position of the engine fixed in a ship? How is the engine aligned? How is the engine secured to floors or tanktop. (sketch method).

5.      Describe and sketch an axial flow pump. Explain it's principle of operation. State what important advantage and serious disadvantage it possesses compared to other pumps. Explain the effects of throttling either the suction or discharge valve.

6.      What is meant by the "flash point of oil? How is it obtained? What are the approximate closed flash points of the following fuels:
(A) diesel oil
(B)  bunker oil
(C)  kerosene
(D) gasoline

7.      With reference to multitubular heat exchangers explain:
(A) how and where impingement attack is likely to occur in the tubes
(B)  Why is it desirable that coolant flow rate should not exceed that required to maintain correct fluid temperature
(C)  ample well-shaped water boxes and smooth tube inlets are desirable
(D) partial obstruction of tube bore is a common cause of tube failure

8.      Discuss the merits and demerits of employing either a soluble oil or a chromate solution as a corrosion inhibitor in the cooling system of a diesel engine.

9.      Give composition of boiler scale. If you had to use potable drinking water in the boiler in an emergency, explain what steps would be required to maintain a reasonable level of impurities. What level of impurities would you try to maintain?
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78EKG-1

Sr. No. 9

EXAMINATION OF MARINE ENGINEER OFFICER

ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE

(GENERAL)

CLASS- I

(Time allowed - 3 hours)

INDIA (2001)                                                            Morning Paper                              Total Marks  100

                             N.B. -        (1) Attempt  SIX questions ONLY.
                                               (2) All questions carry equal marks.
                                               (3) Neatness in handwriting and clarity in expression carries weightage

1.      How is the efficiency of an air compressor affected by the following:
(A) excessive clearance volume
(B)  insufficient cooling water
(C)  restricted low pressure air supply

2.      Explain how the ingress of sea water is prevented in an oil lubricated stern bearing system. Should the system fail, describe the corrective action possible whilst the vessel is afloat. State why two stern bearing oil header tanks are fitted in some instances?

3.      With reference to main shaft bearings which are excessively loaded or very lightly loaded state for each condition what are the:
(A) indications of the fault
(B)  effects on adjacent bearings
(C)  remedial steps
Explain why load distribution on main shaft bearings changes in service.

4.      Give a reasoned opinion as to the accuracy of the following statements:
(A) the effectiveness of a main thrust block is only as good as its seating arrangements
(B)  pivoted pads are not necessary in thrust bearing design
(C)  fore and aft clearance between shaft collar and pads is of little consequence

5.      Sketch and describe a stockless anchor illustrating the method or device used to attach it to the chain cable. When the anchor and cable are ranged during the ships underwater survey, what parts require special attention and what defects are likely to be discovered?

6.      What is meant by the term "closed flashpoint" of an oil? Describe a test to determine its value. State any factors that limit the temperature of heating for marine fuels. Give the approximate closed flashpoint of:
(A) petrol (gasoline)
(B)  paraffin
(C)  boiler fuel oil

7.      With reference to a tubular heat exchanger:
(A) why is ferrous sulphide being used in place of impressed current
(B)  where are TEFLON inserts being used
(C)  what type of material is used for the tubes




8.      Discuss recent developments in the protection of the hull from the effects of corrosion. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various types of hull cleaning procedures indicating your position with respect to the merits or demerits of cleaning the hull while the vessel is afloat.

9.      Describe how you would test boiler water for:
(A) alkalinity
(B)  chlorides.
State the values obtained from the tests that would be considered suitable for a water tube boiler. If the test results were unsatisfactory, what remedial action would you take?

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78EKG-1

Sr. No. 8

EXAMINATION OF MARINE ENGINEER OFFICER

ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE

(GENERAL)

CLASS- I

(Time allowed - 3 hours)

INDIA (2001)                                                            Morning Paper                              Total Marks  100

                             N.B. -        (1) Attempt  SIX questions ONLY.
                                               (2) All questions carry equal marks.
                                               (3) Neatness in handwriting and clarity in expression carries weightage

1.      The vessel on which you are serving as Chief Engineer develops an oil leak from the stern tube aft oil seal whilst on voyage.  Write a letter to the owners of the vessel regarding the incident, describing the temporary emergency measures taken to stop the oil leak. Also supply the owners with information about the cause of the oil leak and the action taken in dry dock to rectify it.

2.      (a)  Sketch a diagrammatic arrangement of  a fully automatic refrigeration system which supplies a              number of cold compartments.
(b)    Describe the operation of the system sketched in Q.2 (a).

3.      With reference to an air operated fuel oil control valve for an auxiliary boiler combustion system:
(a)    sketch the valve, labeling the component parts;
(b)   state the effect of air supply failure;
(c)    describe how the valve can be operated manually;
(d)   state the factors which require a positioner to be fitted.

4.      (a)  Sketch and describe TWO methods that employ manometric means for measuring tank contents.
(b)   State what corrections are made to the readings obtained by the methods described in A.4 (a) in
              order to gauge the mass contents.
(c)    Explain how bunkering requirements may be estimated when no records of main    engine fuel consumption are available on board.

5.      Describe with the aid of a sketch, the hydraulic operating circuit for a controllable pitch propeller.

6.      With reference to shaft alignment:
(a)    Explain the meaning of fair curve or rational alignment;
(b)   Shaft alignment is often verified by the use of hydraulic jacks to obtain a simple graph.                              Sketch such a graph, indicating the following:
(i)  Static load;
(ii)               Hysteresis;
(iii)             Influence number;
         (c)  Explain the limitations of checking shaft alignment solely by hydraulic jacking methods.

7.      (a)  Describe with the aid of simple diagrams:
(i)  Osmosis:                   
(ii)                    Reverse osmosis.
(a)    Explain TWO advantages and TWO disadvantages of producing fresh water by reverse osmosis.
(b)   State the pre-treatment and post-treatment required during the reverse osmosis process for the production of potable water.


8.      With reference to chemical tankers:
(a)    Sketch a suitable cargo pumping and stripping system, labelling the component parts and indicating the direction of fluid flow;
(b)     State the requirements of the regulations evolved to reduce pollution of the sea by           chemical tanker cargoes.

9.      (a)  State what is meant by machinery condition monitoring.
      (b)  Describe how typical shipboard condition monitoring is carried out.
(c)      State how the information obtained by monitoring may be used to indicate machinery condition
             trends.

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78EKG-1

Sr. No. 7

EXAMINATION OF MARINE ENGINEER OFFICER

ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE

(GENERAL)

CLASS- I

(Time allowed - 3 hours)

INDIA (2001)                                                            Morning Paper                              Total Marks  100

                             N.B. -        (1) Attempt  SIX questions ONLY.
                                               (2) All questions carry equal marks.
                                               (3) Neatness in handwriting and clarity in expression carries weightage

1.      State what are the differences in operation of speed-sensing and load-sensing and why it is desirable to fit load-sensing governors in some instances.

2.      (a) Explain the role of the Safety Officer in relation to the Ships Safety Committee. 
(b) Outline the specific duties of the officer on board ship.   
                   
3.      With reference to plate heat exchangers explain how:
(a) A plate pack can be uprated by as much as 30 per cent,
(b) Parallel and contra flow is achieved.

4.      Define the meaning and importance of two of the following terms in relating to lubricating oils:
(a) Viscosity index,
(b) Oxidation inhibitors,
(c) Pour point depressants,
(d) Extreme pressure additives,
(e) Foam stability.

5.      Give three advantages that non-destructive testing has over destructive testing of materials
Describe briefly any non-destructive technique applicable for 'in depth' investigation.
Suggest with reasons an instance where non-destructive testing would find ready application in marine engineering.

6.      Describe with sketches how the 'push-up' of a keyless propeller is carried out dry.
Describe how the propeller is released from the shaft.

7.      Sketch a swash plate pump having an infinitely variable pumping characteristic.
Explain how it operates.
State why a centrifugal pump in which discharge is controlled by a valve cannot be considered as possessing such a characteristic.

8.      (a) Give reasons why multi additive and synthetic lubricants should not normally be passed through centrifuges.          
(b) State why centrifuge clutch slip should receive immediate attention for reasons other than overheating.
(c) Explain why oil preheating greatly assists centrifuge performance.

9.      Give three reasons why the performance of ship's stores refrigeration units tend to 'fall off' in service.


10.  Identify three different corrosion problems encountered in ship structure.
Define the origins and significance of each.
State what precautions are taken to reduce their effects.


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78EKG-1

Sr. No. 6

EXAMINATION OF MARINE ENGINEER OFFICER

ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE

(GENERAL)

CLASS- I

(Time allowed - 3 hours)

INDIA (2001)                                                            Morning Paper                              Total Marks  100

                             N.B. -        (1) Attempt  SIX questions ONLY.
                                               (2) All questions carry equal marks.
                                               (3) Neatness in handwriting and clarity in expression carries weightage

1.      Describe with sketches, devices giving audible and visual alarms under the following conditions:
A.    Burst fuel pipes,
B.     Stoppage of main coolant pump,
C.     High bilge level,
D.    Overheated bearing in main machinery.
State what is the method and frequency of  equipment testing and the power source used to ensure unfailing operation at all times.

2.      Identify three different corrosion problems encountered in ship structure.
Define the origins and significance of each.
State what precautions are taken to reduce their effects.

3.      A.  Define the responsibilities of Chief Engineers immediately prior to dry docking, whilst the dock is dry, immediately prior to and after flooding and leaving dock.
B. Draft a list of standing orders to the engine department for the period that the vessel is on the blocks.      

4.      Identify with reasons which one or combination of the following details contribute most to heat transfer in multiplate heat exchangers:
A.    Plate relief pattern,
B.     Pack size,
C.     Pressure differential across plate thickness,
D.    Gasket thickness.

5.      Give two reasons for sludge formation in main lubricating oil systems.
Explain how bearing metal is attacked with particular reference to incompatibility between oil and metal.
Define the role of additives and state what normal practice must be suspended in order to maintain treated oils in their optimum condition.

6.      State what is the effect of each of the following constituents of distillate fuel on ship's plant:
A.    Sulphur,
B.     Vanadium,
C.     Water,
D.    Incombustible solids.
State how each of these effects is countered.

7.      Give reasoned opinions as to the accuracy of the following statements:
A.    Propeller shaft keys contribute little towards torque transmission,
B.     Flange mounted propellers are the ultimate in 'tail end' design.

8.      Sketch an independently driven main lubricating oil pump.
Explain how it operates.
Identify with reasons the clearances critical to pump efficiency.

9.      With reference to static filter units in main lubricating oil systems explain how:
A.    Static filtration can be equated to dynamic separation,               
B.     Filtration effectiveness is monitored,  
C.     Fine filtration is reconciled to unrestricted flow rate
D.    s of viscous fluids.                         

10.  With reference to main refrigeration plants state how:
A.    ‘Vee" block compressors are lubricated,
B.     Overpressure on the discharge side is prevented,
C.     Refrigeration load is controlled.

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78EKG-1

Sr. No. 5

EXAMINATION OF MARINE ENGINEER OFFICER

ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE

(GENERAL)

CLASS- I

(Time allowed - 3 hours)

INDIA (2001)                                                            Morning Paper                              Total Marks  100

                             N.B. -        (1) Attempt  SIX questions ONLY.
                                               (2) All questions carry equal marks.
                                               (3) Neatness in handwriting and clarity in expression carries weightage

1.      Describe an example of each of the following terms related to control systems. Give sketches to explain the system wherever necessary.
(a) Fail safe,
(b) Fail set,
(c) Split range operation.

2.      Outline the causes of:
(a) General corrosion, and
(b) Localised corrosion of   a ship's hull.
During the inspection of a ship's hull in drydock, localised corrosion is found. Describe the tests and repairs which should be carried out.

3.      Whilst in port, judicial proceedings are instituted against your vessel in respect of a proven case of atmospheric pollution resulting in summary conviction and the imposition of a fine.
As Chief Engineer report to head office the circumstances of the case and the steps taken to avoid such an occurrence in the future.

4.      Identify with reasons which one or combination of the following conditions contribute most to tube failure in multitubular heat exchangers:
(a) High water velocity in tubes,
(b) Wasted sacrificial anodes,
(c) Steep temperature gradient across tube walls,
(d) Tube vibration

5.      State what is the significance of pH value in relation to lubricating oil.
Describe how this value is measured.
State what are the consequences of allowing the pH value of lubricating oil to deviate from closely defined limits.

6.      State why greater use of alloy steels is being made in marine engineering.
Define for each of three alloy steels of different specification, its metallurgical composition, mechanical properties and the reason for selection in a specified marine engineering application.

7.      Describe four defects to which propeller shafts carried in lignum vitae lined water lubricated bearings are susceptible.
Explain how the development of each of these defects may be inhibited.
State what effect lengthy voyages in ballast have on propeller shaft condition and life.




8.      Draw a line diagram of a central priming system, labelling the principal items and indicating direction of flow in the various lines.
Give a general description of the system.
Explain how each pump is primed upon starting or upon loss of suction during operation.
State what advantages the system has over individual priming facilities.

9.      Explain why in oil centrifuges hydrodynamic separation is superior to hydrostatic separation of liquid/solid mixtures for reasons beside time factor.
Explain why centrifuge rotors of closely packed conical discs greatly assist in the separation process.

10.  Describe with sketches an accommodation air conditioning plant.
State how humidity is controlled within prescribed comfort limits.
Explain how such an installation can contribute to the efficiency of a ship's main plant.

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78EKG-1

Sr. No. 4

EXAMINATION OF MARINE ENGINEER OFFICER

ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE

(GENERAL)

CLASS I

(Time allowed - 3 hours)

INDIA (2001)                                                         Morning Paper                                 Total Marks  100

                           N.B. -        (1) Attempt  SIX questions ONLY.
                                             (2) All questions carry equal marks.
                                             (3) Neatness in handwriting and clarity in expression carries weightage


1.      With reference to automatic combustion control in auxiliary or main boilers state how:
A.    Master controller follows steam pressure variations,                      
B.     And why pressure drop across the air registers is measured.            
C.     Air fuel ratio is adjusted.

2.      Describe with sketches, how the pressure of a fluid is controlled by a pneumatic controller, incorporating proportional and integral (reset) action.
A.    Give reasons for instability in the controller action.
B.     State how this instability is overcome.

3.      Whilst in port judicial proceedings are instituted against your vessel in respect of a proven case of atmospheric pollution resulting in summary conviction and the imposition of a fine.
As Chief Engineer report to head office the circumstances of the case and the steps taken to avoid such an occurrence in the future.

4.      With reference to plate heat exchangers state why:
A.    Fluid pressure and temperature does not normally exceed 10 bar and 15000 C respectively,
B.     Titanium and stainless steel plates are finding increasing acceptance,
C.     Carrying bars and clamping bolts are often much longer than pack thickness.

5.      Explain how main engine lubricating oil condition is assessed, on board ship and in an oil company laboratory. As chief engineer, explain what all factors you would look for and the rectification you would do.

6.      Define the metallurgical composition, mechanical properties and the reasons for selection in specified shipboard applications of the following metals:
A.    S.G. cast iron,
B.     Aluminium brass.
C.     Monel metal.

7.      With reference to controllable pitch propellers:
A.    Make a detailed line sketch of the essential features incorporated in a propeller shaft and boss whereby the servo signals are transmitted to the revolving shaft and translated into blade pitch.
B.     Describe the regular maintenance and test checks to ensure maximum reliability at all times, State what 'fail safe' feature is incorporated and how it functions.






8.      Compare the capabilities and limitations of positive displacement and rotodynamic-  pumps.
A.    Explain why running clearances are not so critical in gear pumps as in centrifugal pumps.
B.     Explain why,variable stroke positive displacement pumps are used for hydraulic systems rather than gear pumps with recirculation control.

9.      Define with reasons, the conditions which determine whether an oil centrifuge functions as either a purifier or a clarifier.
A.    Identify the factors determining the extent to which suspended solids are extracted from the oil.
B.     State what effect clutch slip and bowl dirtiness has upon oil conditioning.

10.  With reference to refrigeration plants explain why:
A.    Some multicylinder compressors are likely  to seize whilst operating on full load and state how this can be avoided,
B.     Direct expansion is preferable to, brine circulation in small installations,
C.     A compressor may "short cycle" and state how this condition is corrected.


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78EKG-1

Sr. No. 3

EXAMINATION OF MARINE ENGINEER OFFICER

ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE

(GENERAL)

CLASS- I

(Time allowed - 3 hours)

INDIA (2001)                                                            Morning Paper                                       Total Marks  100

                             N.B. -        (1) Attempt  SIX questions ONLY.
                                               (2) All questions carry equal marks.
                                               (3) Neatness in handwriting and clarity in expression carries weightage

1.      (a) Define the conditions under which cascade control is used.                   
(b) Sketch a system of a cascade control for the closed regulation under all service conditions of either coolant temperature within a main propulsion diesel engine or condensate temperature at exit from a main condenser. 
(c) Explain how the cascade control selected in (b) functions.            

2.      With reference to pneumatically operated control valves define:
(a) The advantages and disadvantages of soft valve seats,
(b) The purpose of valve positioners,
(c) The advantages of the 'fail set' facility.

3.      (a) Define the nature and cause of tin oxide corrosion in bearings.              
(b) State how this action is identified.
(c) State how an affected bearing is restored to service.                    

4.      Compare the following methods of crack detection, defining their advantages and limitations:
(a)                Radiographic,
(b)                Ultrasonic,
(c)                Magnetic,
(d) Dye penetrant

5.      Identify with reasons, which one of the following statements relating to plate heat exchangers is false.
(a) Plate relief patterns are designed to create turbulence,
(b) The scantlings of carrying bars and clamping bolts are designed to accommodate enlargement of pack,
(c) Titanium  and stainless steel are used to reduce plate failure,
(d) The temperature and pressures of fluids handled are completely unrestricted.

6.      Explain how main engine lubricating oil condition is assessed from:
(a)                Condition of main machinery bearings,
(b)               Simple tests on board ship,
(c) Laboratory analysis ashore.
State how deterioration is inhibited by good practice.

7.      Explain why metals may fail when the temperature is:
(a) High,       (b) Low,       (c) Normal.
Give instances where (a), (b) and (c) occasionally occur in marine practice.

8.      Explain why most oily water separators operate within the turbulent flow range.
Explain how the effectiveness of simple gravity type separators can be improved at the design stage.

9.      Explain why the fitting of keyless propellers is becoming increasingly common in the higher propulsion power ranges.
Sketch and describe the method of mounting the propeller using a separate sleeve in-conjunction with the boss.
Give reasons for this complication.
10.  With reference to centrifugal pumps explain the cause of the following faults:
(a) Failure to deliver water,
(b) Serious reduction in capacity,
(c) Excessive vibration.
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78EKG-1

Sr. No. 2

EXAMINATION OF MARINE ENGINEER OFFICER

ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE

(GENERAL)

CLASS I

(Time allowed - 3 hours)

INDIA (2001)                                                          Morning Paper                                            Total Marks  100

                          N.B. -        (1) Attempt  SIX questions ONLY.
                                            (2) All questions carry equal marks.
                                            (3) Neatness in handwriting and clarity in expression carries weightage

1.      (a) You were instructed to change the water treatment in the auxiliary boiler for a specified period of time.
(b) As Chief Engineer report to head office how the trial has been productive of information and data applicable to the improvement of boiler management.

2.      Draw in detail, a cargo valve actuator incorporated in a pneumatic control system.
Explain how valve position is supervised from a remote control station.

3.      Identify three different corrosion problems encountered in ship structure.
(a) Define the origins and significance of each. 
(b) State what precautions are taken to reduce their effects.

4.      Draw a line diagram of a central cooling system, labelling the principal components and showing the direction of fluid flow in all lines.
(a)             Give three advantages of this system.
(b)             Explain why such, a system in its simplest form is inadequate for normal shipboard requirements.

5.      Define and elaborate upon the Chief Engineer's responsibilities with regard to:
(a) Avoidance of pollution of enclosed and inshore waters with oil,
(b) Avoidance of pollution of port atmosphere with smoke,
(c) Personnel safety in the machinery spaces in port and at sea.

6.      Describe with sketches a plate type heat exchanger.
(a)             Explain how plate configuration and fluid flow across the plates effects heat transfer.
(b)             Examine the problems yet to be resolved with plate type exchangers.

7.      A laboratory analysis of a main lubricating oil sample revealed a quality of such inferiority as to be both unacceptable and inexcusable.
As Chief Engineer report to head office accounting for the condition of the oil and showing that by your actions you are free from blame.

8.      Define the metallurgical composition, mechanical properties and the reason for selection in a specified marine engineering application of the following metals:
(a) Nodular cast iron,
(b) High tensile steel,
(c) Titanium.





9.      Give reasoned opinions as to the accuracy of the following statements:
(a) Propeller shaft keys contribute little towards torque transmission,
(b) Flange mounted propellers are the ultimate in 'tail end' design,
(c) To avoid over stressing in boss, dry 'push up' is preferable to hydraulic 'floating'.

10.  Sketch and describe a self contained totally submerged pump for emptying tanks of hazardous liquid chemical cargo.
(a) Explain why this type of pump is used for this service.
(b) State with reasons what safety features are incorporated in the pump design.

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Write to me at marinenotes4u@gmail.com,283928@gmail.com.::MK::.
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