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Types of Containers 20' AND 40' DRY CONTAINERS




20' AND 40' DRY CONTAINERS

Dry, or standard containers are basically steel boxes, either 40' or 20' long, by 8' wide by 8'6'' high. 



Standard containers are also known as general purpose containers. They are closed containers, i.e. they are closed on all sides. A distinction may be drawn between the following types of standard container: 

Standard containers with doors at one or both end(s) 
Standard containers with doors at one or both end(s) and doors over the entire length of one or both sides 
Standard containers with doors at one or both end(s) and doors on one or both sides 

In addition, the various types of standard container also differ in dimensions and weight, resulting in a wide range of standard containers. Standard containers are mainly used as 20' and 40' containers. Containers with smaller dimensions are very seldom used. Indeed, the trend is towards even longer dimensions, e.g. 45'. The cost advantages have led to the predominant use of steel for container walls. The floor is generally made of wood, usually planking or plywood. Although wood is relatively expensive, it has substantial advantages over other materials: it is strong and resilient, does not dent, may be easily replaced during repairs and, when appropriately finished, has an adequate coefficient of friction, which is important for cargo securing. Standard containers may additionally be equipped with certain optional extras:
 
Forklift Pockets


 
Side Access
Forklift pockets: these allow handling of empty containers with forklift trucks. Packed containers must not be picked up in this way unless specifically permitted. Forklift pockets are installed only in 20' containers and are arranged parallel to the center of the container in the bottom side rails. 40' containers do not have forklift pockets, since the pockets are relatively close together and such large containers would be difficult to balance. In addition, the forklift truck travel paths are often not wide enough.

Gooseneck tunnel: Many 40' containers have a recess in the floor at the front end which serves to centre the containers on so-called gooseneck chassis. These recesses allow the containers to lie lower and therefore to be of taller construction. 

Grappler pockets: In general, containers are handled by top spreaders using the corner fittings or corner castings. However, some containers have grappler pockets for handling by means of grapplers. 

Side Access: These containers have two doors on either sides at the centre of the two side panels or diametrically opposed to each other on the side panels 
Special fittings are available for transporting special cargoes: 

Clothes rails for hanging garments: Special lashing rings attached to the top side rail serve to accommodate clothes rails on which textiles may be transported hanging on clothes-hangers. These are often used in the East Asia import trade. Additional lashing rings are installed on the bottom side rail and the corner posts. 

Inlet (bulk bag or liquid bulk bag): Plastic liners may be suspended in standard containers for transporting bulk cargo or nonhazardous liquids. These come in many forms and materials for different types of cargo. 
Gooseneck TunnelClothes RailsGrappler Pocket



HARD TOP CONTAINERS



The walls of hard-top containers are generally made of corrugated steel. The floor is made of wood.

It has two typical distinguishing structural features: 
On the one hand, it is equipped with a removable steel roof. In some types, this roof has points for accommodating forklift trucks, allowing the roof to be lifted by forklift truck. The roof weighs approx. 450 kg. In addition, the door header may be swivelled out. These two structural features greatly simplify the process of packing and unpacking the container. In particular, it is very easy to pack and unpack the container from above or through the doors by crane or crab when the roof is open and the door header is swivelled out.In the case of transport of an overheight cargo, the container roof may be left open and fastened directly to a side wall on the inside of the container. To do this, the roof only needs approx. 13 cm (5 1/8") of space.

Lashing rings, to which the cargo may be secured, are installed in the upper and lower side rails, the corner posts and the middle of the side walls. The lashing rings on the side rails and corner posts may take loads of up to 2000 kg. The lashing rings in the middle of the side walls may take loads of up to 500 kg, provided that the roof is closed.

Usual hard-top container dimensions are 20' and 40'. Hard-top containers are used for all types general cargo (dry cargo). Their principal uses are for heavy cargo, tall cargo and  loading from above or through the doors by crane or crab.

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